Islam Societal Transformation Entails Minimum Human Loss

By Abdullah Abdullah

Real authenticated Islam, a Constitution for humanity catering to their natural disposition and free will, transforms society psychologically thus rending destructive wars useless or minimized during the evolution phase. Islam absolutely discourages abrupt revolutions that always results in maximum loss of human life. For example, French, USA, Communist etc are examples for historic prespective.

Nevertheless, those false gods, demigods, or men with power greed always stand up to the status quo change mobilizing resources of all kind against it. Thus physically defense of the community in evolution phase becomes imperative resulting in loss of human and wealth. Therefore, Islam as a constitution not present in any nation at this time, was fought for to defend it against it enemies by Muslims. To understand why Islam is the Constitution for Humanity we must review statistics of deaths resulted by those who fought for it and against it.

For ease, all those pseudo Islamic Governments with monarchy, not part of Real Islam, bunched together remained in the statistics compiled purely from Non-Muslim sources, thus due to propaganda against Islam in the West from the era of Crusades deem unbiased and exaggerated. With the entire cards stack against Islam, the findings are as expected ProIslam and Humanity.

Arab Outbreak, et seq. (7th Century CE and beyond)
Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, v.5:
661 CE – Disputed succession to Caliphate: Ali lost 25,000; Moawiyah (Muawiya) lost 45,000
Conquest of Yemen: 1200 Muslims killed in 1st assault; 10,000 Infidels killed in 2nd
Battle of Cadesia: 7,500 Saracens
635 CE – Battle conquering Syria: 470 Arabs + 50,000 Romans killed
636 CE – Battle of Yermuk: 4,030 Moslems buried
638 CE – 3,000 defenders killed in siege of Allepo.
642 CE – Siege of Alexandria: 23,000 Saracens
Battle of Xeres, Spain: 16,000 Saracens
Siege of Constantinople: 30,000
838 CE – Siege of Amorium: 70,000 Moslem and 30,000 Christians.
Motassem sacrifices 200,000 lives
929 CE – Carmathian rebellion in Arabia: 20,000 pilgrims left to die in the desert; 30,000 put to the sword in Mecca.
First Turkish raid into East Roman Empire: 130,000 Christians
1076 CE – Atsiz the Carizmian conquers Jerusalem: 3,000 massacred
Jews of Medina: Ronald Segal, Islam’s Black Slaves: 600 Jewish men accused by Muhammad of betrayal and killed, ca. 624 CE. PBS: all 700 men of the Jewish Banu Qurayza tribe were executed.
Note: they were killed as traitors to peace agreement with Muslims through helping enemies in their bid to annihilated whole population of Medina

Total deaths in transformation of social systems of half of the world led to minimum deaths as Islam forbids hate of humanity rather only the falsehood is the target.
TOTAL: 698,200 deaths

The Perpetuated Genocides in Non Muslim Systems
Total Deaths after fall of Muslim Empire until before World Wars 182,027,600
Thus statistically Islam is Supreme Constitution and Religion for Humanity from the Creature of the Universe for His slaves.
Heed and bow to your Creators Will or prepare for Destruction of Humanity as evident by the deaths caused by false gods murdering whole nations in following text of history.

Crusades (1095-1291) TOTAL: 56,000,000 deaths
Estimated totals:
Robertson, John M., A Short History of Christianity (1902) p.278: 9,000,000
Aletheia, The Rationalist’s Manual: 5,000,000
Henry William Elson, Modern Times and the Living Past, (1921) p. 261: 5,000,000
The Rationalist’s Manual (1897), M. D. Aletheia ironically calculates that “The Fruits of Christianism” have actually been 56 million deaths:

Let us look for a moment at the number of victims sacrificed on the altars of the Christian Moloch:
1,000,000 perished during the early Arian schism.
1,000,000 during the Carthaginian struggle.
7,000,000 during the Saracen slaughters in Spain.
5,000,000 perished during the eight Crusades.
2,000,000 of Saxons and Scandinavians lost their lives in opposing the introduction of the blessings of Christianity.
1,000,000 were destroyed in the Holy(?) Wars against the Netherlands, Albigenses, Waldenses, and Huguenots.
30,000,000 Mexicans and Peruvians were slaughtered ere they could be convinced of the beauties(?) of the manmade Christian creed.
9,000,000 were burned for witchcraft. (by those who claim to be Christians)

Pre-Twentieth Century Democide* by Non Muslims(Before World War Period)
Total Deaths 126,027,600
After the capture of Bram in 1210, the Albigensian Crusaders, Christians all, took 100 of the captured soldiers and gouged out their eyes, cut off their noses and upper lips, and had them led by a one-eyed man to Cabaret, yet to be attacked.2 This to terrorize Cabaret into immediate surrender.

And the Crusades of the Middle Ages should not be ignored. In the aforementioned 1099 sack of Jerusalem, besides the 40,000 to over 70,000 Moslems that may have been butchered, the Crusaders herded surviving Jews into a synagogue and burned them alive.56 Interestingly, in light of the Mongol and Chinese hecatombs, this massacre of unarmed Moslems and Jews “has long been reckoned among the greatest crimes of history.”57

In 1209 the Albigensian Crusaders also slaughtered some 15,000 to 60,000 inhabitants of BŽziers, after which the city was plundered and burned.58 And in 1236 when the Jews of Anjou and Poitou refused to be forcibly baptized, the Crusaders reportedly trampled 3,000 of them to death with their horses.59

From 1567 to 1573, the Duke of Alba (representative to the Low Countries of Philip II, King of Spain) tortured to death and otherwise killed 18,000 Protestants to maintain order, or so it is said.61

One of the best publicized historical democides is that of the Great Terror of 1793-1794 in revolutionary France. The Revolutionary Tribunal and its equivalent in the provinces may have executed up to 20,000 of the nobility, political opponents, and alleged traitors.62 And although often reported as a civil war, in fact a full-scale genocide was carried out in the VendŽe in which possibly 117,000 inhabitants were indiscriminately murdered.63

A particular kind of massacre is that of scapegoats for major human disasters. The presence of Jews in Christian Europe has always provided an easy explanation for catastrophes like the plague. “Why are people getting sick and dying on mass? Because the Jews are poisoning the water.” Jews everywhere were thus attacked during the Black Death of 1347-1352 that killed around 25,000,000 Europeans. Jews were massacred wholesale. For example, in Mainz, Germany, 6,000 were recorded killed; in Erfurt 3,000 died. “By the end of the plague, few Jews were left in Germany or the Low Countries.”64

Then there are the colonial “peace-keeping” massacres of tribes or primitive groups engaged in raiding or limited tribal warfare. One example is an 1849 expedition sent out against certain native tribes of the coast of Borneo. Under the direction of Sir James Brooke, British Rajah of Sarawak, it annihilated a force of Dyaks then allegedly returning from a piratical excursion against coastal tribes. About 1,500 to 2,000 of them were killed by cannon shot, musket, grapeshot. This was simply a wanton massacre of a native tribe engaged in traditional limited, native warfare.66

Sometimes natives or offending groups were simply killed. An extraordinary case of this was the Dutch orchestration of the massacre of the Chinese in Jakarta (then Batavia). The Dutch first had the Chinese confined inside the walls of Batavia, stripping them of the smallest kitchen knife and putting them under a dusk-to-dawn curfew. The Dutch then distributed arms to what they themselves called “the low-class masses” and gave these “mobs” a free hand to massacre the helpless Chinese. The rapine inside Batavia was allowed to go on from the 9th to the 22nd of October, 1740. While the “mobs” were despatching Chinese lives inside Batavia, the Dutch East India Company troops killed those who had fled from the city before the curfew and roamed in Batavia’s environs.

At the end of the “Grand Guignol” inside Batavia, most sources agree, 10,000 city-Chinese lost their lives, but little is said about the many more who must have perished outside the city’s walls. Of the 80,000-odd Chinese in Batavia’s environs prior to the extermination only around 3,000 survived. . . .

Finally, it is notable that the Dutch declared an open season on the Chinese all over Java. Governor General Valckenier mentioned that in June 1741 the Council of the Indies voted for a “general massacre of the Chinese over the whole of Java.” Thus, 6 months after the first slaughter, a rerun took place in Semarang (Central Java). Likewise, “in other parts of Java the violence continued . . . where i.a. the Chinese of Soerabaia and Grisee East Java were also massacred.”67

Forgotten American Holocaust
During 1600s total estimated world population was 550 Million, while deaths instigated by Darwanistic ideals of survival of the fittest, evolution, and Western (European/Greek) Oriented Governance ended in total deaths of 115 Million to 125 Million.

Humanity must not forget the fallacies and destruction caused by false isms, social experiments, & doctrines that continue to kill now in 21st Century. Only law befitting humanity must prevail, law that caters to Genetic Inclinations of Human Race, binding us all in love of common genetics & species.

African American Slavery
In American Holocaust (1992), David Stannard estimates that some 30 to 60 million Africans died being enslaved. He claims a 50% mortality rate among new slaves while being gathered and stored in Africa, a 10% mortality among the survivors while crossing the ocean, and another 50% mortality rate in the first “seasoning” phase of slave labor. Overall, he estimates a 75-80% mortality rate in transit.

In “The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Holocaust” (Is the Holocaust Unique, A. Greebaum, ed., 1996), Seymour Drescher estimates that 21M were enslaved, 1700-1850, of which 7M remained in slavery inside Africa. 4M died “as a direct result of enslavement”. Of the 12M shipped to America, 15%, or 2M more, died in the Middle Passage and seasoning year.

Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1994): “[A]s many as eight million Africans may have died in order to bring four million slaves to the Caribbean islands.”

Rummel estimates a total death toll of 17,267,000 African slaves (1451-1870)
Among slaves going to Orient: 2,400,000 dead
Among slaves staying in Africa: 1,200,000 dead
Among slaves going to New World: 13,667,000 dead

Fredric Wertham claims that 150 Million Africans died of the slave trade.

Native American Holocaust
In American Holocaust, Stannard estimates the total cost of the near-extermination of the American Indians as 100 Million

M. D. Aletheia, The Rationalist’s Manual (1897): 30 Million Mexicans and Peruvians were slaughtered.
David Barrett, World Christian Trends: Conquistadors killed 15 Million Amerindians

Coe, Snow and Benson, Atlas of Ancient America (1986)
Total pre-Columbian population: 40M
Mexico: Original population of 11M to 25M (“lower figure commands more support”) fell to 1.25M (1625)
Peru: Pop. fell from 9M (1533) to less than 500,000 (early 17th C)
Brazil: Original population of 2.5M to 5.0M (“recent commentators favoring the higher”) fell to 1M

Massimo Livi-Bacci, Concise History of World Population History 2d (1996)
Mexico: Population fell from 6.3M (1548) to 1.9M (1580) to 1M (1605)
Peru: Pop. fell from 1.3M (1572) to 600,000 (1620)
Canada: from 300,000 (ca. 1600) to < 100,000 (ca. 1800)
USA: from 5M (1500) to 60,000 (ca. 1800) [sic. Probably means 600,000 because he cites Thornton]

R.J. Rummel estimates that 13,778,000 American Indians died of democide in the 16th through 19th Centuries:
Total dead among Native Americans in colonial era: 49.5M out of pre-contact population of 55M
Democides in this: 5M
Democides among Indians, post-colonial era: 8,763,000
Democides in US: 15,000

Skidmore & Smith, Modern Latin America (1997)
Mexico: Population fell from 25M (1519) to 16.8M (1523) to 1.9M (1580) to 1M (1605)
Peru: from 1.3M (1570, forty years after Conquest) to Stannard, American Holocaust (1992): 100 Million deaths across the hemisphere across time

While these were the largest American massacres, there undoubtedly were numerous small ones. Moreover, many Indians were killed by vigilantes while local government looked the other way, or were murdered individually by settlers. For example there was the fate of the Californian Yuki Indians. Originally having a population of around 3,500, in a little more than thirty years its numbers fell to about 400 through “kidnapping, epidemics, starvation, vigilante justice, and state sanctioned mass killing.”74 Moreover, there was the so-called Trail of Tears deaths. In the 1835 treaty of New Echota with the U.S. government Cherokee leaders of a minority faction, and without the approval of the majority, agreed to the nation moving out of Georgia to West of the Mississippi River. Although many prominent Americans publicly opposed such a deportation, in 1838 President Van Buren ordered the army to enforce the treaty. At gun point the Cherokees were thus made to trek westward to Oklahoma in the winter of 1838-39. The resulting exposure and disease killed off nearly 25 percent of the tribe, or about 4,000 people.75 While the Federal Government’s responsibility is mitigated by the treaty, the cruelty of the enforcement amounts to indirect massacre. It was democide. Perhaps overall, considering these and other cases and including massacres, by 1900 some 10,000 to 25,000 Indians may have been killed.76

But these estimates are only a fraction of the overall democide among Indians that inhabited all the Americas. Before the conquest of the New World the Indian population may have numbered from 8,000,000 to 110,000,000;77 perhaps even 145,000,000.78 A moderate population estimate consistent with the latest research is of 55,000,000 Indians79 Almost totally as a result of several waves of disease carried to the Americas by the conquering and colonizing Europeans, the Indian population dropped steeply by tens of millions, even possibly by as much as 95 percent.80 In Mexico alone the Indian population may have fallen by 23,000,000 to under 2,000,000.81 Including those Indians who were killed in warfare and democide, perhaps 60,000,000 to 80,000,000 Indians of Central and South American and the Caribbean died as “a result of the European invasion.”82

Natives elsewhere were similarly mistreated and murdered. The Australian Aborigine, for example, were massacred by soldiers and killed indiscriminately by settlers, often with actual or tacit government approval. In Tasmania alone by 1832 as many as 700 out of an original population of 1,000 may have been killed.87 In all of Australia the Aborigine population in 1788 was about 300,000, divided into about 500 tribes, each with a distinct dialect and culture. In the resulting frontier conflict with settlers during the 18th and 19th centuries, possible 20,000 or more Aborigines were killed.88

The manner in which some of this killing was conducted is clear from the Burke Town Correspondent’s report in the Port Denison Times of June 4th, 1868:
“I much regret to state that the blacks have become very troublesome about here lately. Within ten miles of this place they speared and cut steaks from the rumps of several horses. As soon as it was known, the Native Police, under Sub-Inspector Uhr, went out, and, I am informed, succeeded in shooting upwards of thirty blacks. No sooner was this done than a report came in that Mr. Cameroon had been murdered at Liddle and Hetzer’s station . . . Mr. Uhr went off immediately in that direction, and his success I hear was complete. . . .Everybody in the district is delighted with the wholesale slaughter dealt out by the native police, and thank Mr. Uhr for his energy in ridding the district of fifty-nine (59) myalls”89

Although not competing in numbers with those massacred in Americas, Europeans had their share of such genocidal massacres. An illustrative case is the St. Bartholomew massacre. On August 24th, 1572, King Charles IX or his Court unleashed a slaughter of French Calvinists that spread from Paris to the whole country. In this famous St. Bartholomew day massacre a contemporary Protestant estimated that 300,000 were killed; later estimates reduced this to 100,000, then 36,000.91

Such Massacres and genocides as those of the Mongols and Ottomans are episodic, usually discrete in time or place. But there are other types of government killing that are routine or ritualistic and except for the more dramatic events may simply involve a few people killed in cold blood here, a few there, but across the land and years these numbers accumulate to a colossal slaughter. Such was the Catholic Church’s treatment of heretics, who were hunted and when allegedly found tortured, burned at the stake, or left to die of privation and disease in dungeons. During the Thirteenth Century Albigensian Crusade in France, for example, historians count 140 heretics burned to death at Minerva, 400 in Lavaur, 60 in Cass, 183 in Montwimer, 210-215 at MontsŽgur, and 80 in Barleiges.;95 in the Roman arena at Verona, Italy, 200 heretics were burned at the stake.96

The Spanish Inquisition established in 1480 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella and that was led from 1483 to 1498 by the Dominican monk de Torquemada may have burned to death as many as 10,220 heretics in total; 125,000 possibly died from torture and privation in prison.97 A secretary of the inquisition says that no more than 4,000 were burned to death altogether. But in Seville alone this number of heretics may have been so killed.98 Perhaps a more realistic figure is that of the General Secretary of the Inquisition, who estimated that from 1480 to 1488, 8,800 people were killed by fire, and from 1480 to 1808 the victims may have totaled 31,912.99 During the most intensive years of the Inquisition about 500 people per year also may have been burned to death in the New World.100 Note that many of these poor people were not simply killed. They died by a means which was carefully selected as among the most poignant that man can suffer. They were usua11y burnt alive. They were burnt alive not infrequently by a slow fire. They were burnt alive after their constancy had been tried by the most excruciating agonies that minds fertile in torture could devise.101

The Catholic Church’s attempt to so purge heretics had its counterpart in the Reformation Protestant’s campaign against witches. Witches were believed to have sold their soul to the Devil for magical powers. While the Salem witch trials of Massachusetts in 1692 give the impression that early Americans were particularly prone to this superstition, it was really in Europe, particularly in Germany and France, that the torture and killing of alleged witches was most prevalent. Under Calvin’s government of Geneva in 1545, for example, thirty-four women were recorded burned or quartered for witchcraft. In the late years of the 16th Century, witch hunts reached their peak. In some German cities historians estimate that as many as 900 “witches” in a year were killed, often after agonizing torture to force out confessions; in some villages hardly a women was left alive. In total, throughout Christendom more than 30,000 “witches” may have killed;102 Taking into account the routine nature of these killings, the final figure may be around 100,000;103 it might even reach 500,000.104

One kind of sacrifice must not go unmentioned, although virtually ignored in the literature. This is the sacrifice of colonial subjects through forced labor to satisfy private greed or state power. All the European colonial powers seemed to have extorted labor from their subjects in Africa, Asia, and the New World through such devices. For the Spanish, German, and Portuguese subjects, this was particularly deadly. In some cases the average colonial plantation or estate laborer may not have survived for more than a couple of years. It was sometimes easier or cheaper to “replenish the stock” than provide health maintaining food, clothing, medical care, and living quarters. I suspect that at a rock bottom minimum 10,000,000 colonial forced laborers must have died thusly.115 The true toll may have been several times this number.

This does not even weigh the human cost of the state’s conventional forced labor–that of subjects compelled to man galleys, sail ships (as by the operation of press gangs in British ports), carry supplies and weapons in time of war or rebellion, build pyramids, construct fortifications, or build roads, bridges, dams, canals, and the like.
Aside from state executions there are the untold millions that have died in prison or other forms of detention from simple mistreatment, neglect, malnutrition, exposure, and preventable disease, as in the Soviet gulag. The inhumanity of France’s penal colony called Devils Island (in French Guiana) is well known. Less well known was the sometimes barbarous nature of the transportation of convicts to Australia by Britain, sometimes a horrible voyage of as much as eight months. For one such fleet of convicts 267 died aboard and three vessels alone landed sick convicts of whom 124 died almost immediately. The dead were thrown naked into Sydney harbor. An army officer aboard, Cap Hill, pointed out that the masters of the transport ships, unlike slave captains, had no financial interest in landing their human cargo in healthy condition: “The slave traffic is merciful compared to what I have seen in this fleet.” Evidence given to Parliament in 1812 showed that those transported included boys and girls of 12 and men and women over 80.125

Even in Europe up to modern times the slaughtering of captured garrisons was not unusual. During the Thirty Years War, for example, Count of Tilly captured Neubrandenburg in 1631 and allegedly killed the garrison of 3,000; and the same year Gustavus, King of Sweden, captured the garrison of 2,000 at Frankfurt an der Oder and killed them all.129 Death might come slowly, as prisoners were tortured and mutilated for amusement or to terrorize opposing armies and nations. Even among those Christian states that prided themselves on their humanity, prisoners of war were treated with less than humanity. During the American Civil War, for example, Northern soldiers held in the Southern prison of Andersonville over a six-month period in 1864 died at an annual rate of 79 percent. In total 10,000 perished. Northern prisons were only a little better. For the whole war their death rate for southern prisoners of war was about 23 percent, about the same death rate as the Soviet gulag.130 Overall, 19,060 Southerners died. For both North and South, many of these deaths of prisoners were avoidable had proper food, clothing, and medical care been provided.
* From the pre-publisher edited manuscript of Chapter 3 in R.J. Rummel, Death By Government, 1994. For full reference this book, the list of its contents, figures, and tables, and the text of its preface, clickbook.
1. Contenau (1954, p. 148).
2. Oldenbourg, (1961, p. 136).
3. Saunders (1971, p. 60-61).
4. Ibid. p. 61.
5. This toll for the massacre at Nishapur is reported by Durant (1950, p. 339), Saunders (1971, p. 241n.6), Howorth (1965, p. 88), and Petrushevsky (1968, p. 485). Only Petrushevsky claims it is an improbable figure. A massacre this large does seem numerically impossible, but consider: The inhabitants of a captured city would often be divided among the Mongol soldiers for killing, possible as many as several dozen or more to a man. Moreover, Mongol armies could be as large as 100,000 men or more, and the massacres might go on for weeks. Nonetheless, any such figures must be understood as simply suggestive of a possible order of magnitude.
6. Oldenbourg (1966, p. 140); Durant (1950, pp. 591-592).
7. Howorth (1965, p. 92).
8. Durant (1954, p. 463).
9. Ibid., p. 461.
10. Manning (1992, p. 119).
11. Johnson (1991b, p. 321).
12. Manning (1992, p. 119).
13. From Statistics of Democide.
14. Howorth (1965, p. 79); Durant (1950, p. 339).
15. Durant (1950, p. 339).
16. Howorth (1961, p. 82).
17. Ibid., p. 86.
18. Ibid., 1965, p. 87.
19. Durant (1950, p. 339).
20. Howorth (1965, p. 91). Without citation, Durant (1950, p. 339) claims that 60,000 were killed.
21. Grousset (1966, p. 278).
22. Ibid., p. 280.
23. Ibid.
24. Quoted in Ibid., pp. 286-287. “The elimination cannot, however, have been quite total, since a considerable number of Tangut subjects were allotted to the Lady YesŸi.” (Ibid., p. 287).
25. Howorth (1965, p. 200); Durant (1950, p. 340).
26. Saunders (1971, p. 65).
27. Toynbee (1947, p. 347).
28. From Statistics of Democide.
29. Howorth (1965, p. 381n.1).
30. Ibid. (1965, p. 381).
31. Payne (1973, p. 64).
32. Cox (1989, p. 1).
33. Guantao (1984).
34. Ibid.
35. Purcell (1963, p. 166).
36. Chesneaux (1973, p. 39).
37. Michael and Taylor (1975, p. 183).
38. Purcell (1963, p. 168).
39. Ho (1959, p. 237).
40. Quoted in Ibid., p. 239.
41. Chesneaux (1973, p. 40).
42. Pelissier (1967, p. 109).
43. Ibid., p. 157.
44. Purcell (1963, p. 167).
45. T’ien (1981, p. 1).
46. Ho (1959, p. 247).
47. See Statistics of Democide.
48. Durant (1957, p. 183).
49. Severy (1987, p. 566).
50. Durant (1953, p. 632).
51. Wright, 1965, p. 244n.67; Durant (1961, p. 563).
52. Wedgwood (1961, p. 496).
53. Wright (1965, p. 244n.67).
54. See Statistics of Democide.
55. Recall that I define as democide a famine and disease that is intentionally man-made with reckless abandon for human life, such as by an army purposely laying waste to the countryside.
56. Durant (1950, pp. 591-592). Oldenbourg (1966, p. 140) puts the overall number at nearly 40,000 killed.
57. Quoted in Oldenbourg (1966, p. 137).
58. de Sismondi (1826, p. 37).
59. Durant (1950, p. 393).
60. Walker (1980, p. 107).
61. Paris (1961, p. 4); Encyclop¾dia Britannica (1973, Vol. 1, p. 504).
62. Medvedev (1971, p. 269); Burns and Ralph (1955, Vol. 2, p. 95); Sydenham (1965, Chapter  .
63. Ladouce (1988, pp. 686, 690).
64. Duplaix (1988, p. 681).
65. Wise (1976, pp. 35, 177, 240); Brooks (1950).
66. Chamerovzow (1850).
67. Kemasang (1982, p. 68). Quotes within the quote are from Twan Djie Liem.
68. Chalk and Jonassohn (1990, pp. 190-191).
69. Ibid., pp. 179-80.
70. Hoig (1961); Russell (1973, p. 45).
71. Russell (1973, pp. 45-46).
72. Madsen (1985, pp. 199-200).
73. Russell (1973, pp. 43, 61-2).
74. Chalk and Jonassohn (1990, p. 199).
75. Encyclop¾dia Britannica (1973, Vol. 5, p. 451); Charny (1982, p. 11).
76. From table 3A.2, line 209.
77. Encyclop¾dia Britannica (1973, Vol. 12, p. 54).
78. Stannard (1992, p. 342n.23; from a paper by Henry F. Dobyns reassessing his published lower figures).
79.See, for example, Ubelaker (1992) and White (1993).
80. Whitmore (1992, p. 2). This high is from Henry F. Dobyns.
81. Lancaster (1990, p. 437).
82. Stannard (1992, p. 95; 1992a, p. 431).
83. For a “well-documented” case of an attempt by the British to purposely spread disease to the Indians in order to exterminate them, see Chalk and Jonassohn (1990, p. 177).
84. Stannard (1992).
85. Personal communication.
86. Wertham (1962, p. 140).
87. Ryan (1981, p. 174).
88. Broome (1982, pp. 11, 51).
89. Quoted in Reynolds (1972, p. 22).
90. Durant (1954, p. 461).
91. Kelley (1974, pp. 199-200); Paris (1961, p. 4; Soman (1974, pp. vii-viii) gives a figure of 2,000 killed, but this probably was only for Paris. According to Durant (1961, p. 352), the estimates vary from 5,000 to 30,000.
92. Greene (1895, p. 96).
93. Quoted in Boyajian (1972, p. 83).
94. Lang (1981, pp. 8-10); Boyajian (1972, p. 83); Libaridian (1987, p. 229n11); Hovannisian (1986, p. 25).
95. Oldenbourg (1961, pp. 141, 149, 361, 394).
96. Davies (1981, p. 244).
97. Paris (1961, p. 4). The Encyclop¾dia Britannica (1973, Vol. 12, p. 272) claims that Torquemada had only 2,000 heretics burned to death.
98. Durant (1957, p. 216).
99. Ibid., pp. 215.
100. Davies (1981, p. 249).
101. Lecky (1925, pp. 41-2).
102. Burns and Ralph (1955, Vol. 2, pp. 602-604).
103. Hirsch and Smith (1991, p. 402).
104. Heinsohn and Steiger (1985, p. 144).
105. Davies (1981, pp. 146). Davies believes this figure an exaggeration.
106. Ibid., p. 150.
107. Ibid., pp. 217-218.
108. Ibid., pp. 218-219.
109. Ibid., p. 261-262.
110. Ibid.
111. Ibid., p. 21.
112. Ibid., p. 76.
113. Ibid.
114. Ibid., p. 191-192.
115. From Statistics of Democide.
116. Breiner (1990, pp. 49-50).
117. Ibid., pp. 50-51.
118. Ibid.
119. Ibid., p. 50.
120. Ibid., p. 8.
121. Davies (1981, p. 78).
122. In many cultures infanticide was the custom and government simply observed it. 123. Bowers (1974, p. 135).
124. Pinheiro (1991, p. 182).
125. Johnson (1991b, p. 250).
126. Durant (1950, p. 599).
127. Payne (1973, p. 66). See also Durant (1954, p. 463).
128. Quoted in Severy (1987, p. 573).
129. Durant (1961, p. 563).
130. Rummel (1990, table 1B, line 113).
131. Davies (1981, p. 94).
132. Quoted in Walter (1969, p. 134).
133. See Statistics of Democide.
134. Durant (1957, p. 64).
135. Eckhardt and Kšhler (1980, p. 368).
136. Eckhardt (1991, p. 7).

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